A suggestion would be to create the "word document" template as a userform in excel and have the form enter the info directly into excel. It could be done with even using a worksheet in excel for entry and then write a macro to save the data.
As to all the other items, it would be possible to do extract in excel from Word but it is not clear to me where all the numbers come from. The Word doc does not seem tot match the Excel table. Some I can guess at where they go, but oher fields are not clear. It also seems that some of the data is not being copied into the excel doc
Some also seems to be "standard data" based on what the pond name is and this is not on the sheet. This type of data should also be stored somewhere (for either methodology) so it can be obtained when the extraction is being done.
Either way can be done (it might even be easier to do with access) but it should be able to be done directly only using excel and not using word at all. (I think it would be easier to just use excel, but I don't use word alot, esp for creating data tables). If you could elaborate on what you need and where you might want some help, we should be able to help you out.